Properties of Aggregates Approximately 75% of the volume of concrete is occupied by aggregates, so quality of aggregates plays an important role in determining properties of concrete. Aggregates are chemically inert, solid bodies held together by the cement. Aggregates come in various shapes, sizes, and materials ranging from fine particles of sand to large, coarse […]
FIRE RESISTING PROPERTIES OF COMMON BUILDING MTERIALS Fire resisting properties of common building materials such as stone, brick, timber, cast-iron, glass, steel and concrete are mentioned below. 1. STONE The stone is a bad conductor of heat. But it suffers appreciably under the effects of fire. The stone is also liable to disintegrate into small […]
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CAUSES OF DISINTEGRATION OF CONCRETE The primary reasons that cause disintegration of concrete member are desribed below. 1. SULPHATE ATTACK Soluble sulphates are present in Ground water Soil Clay bricks Soluble sulphates react with Tricalcium Aluminate of cement I n the presence of moisture and form products which occupy much bigger volume than that of […]
Minimising Defects in Plastering Work Defects in plastering work can be minimised by following the below mentioned techniques. The brick and plastering work should be carried out by skilled masons in the best workmanship manner. Bond of brick work should be properly maintained. Efflorescence is removed by rubbing brushes on the damaged surface. A solution […]
BRICKWORK CHECK LIST FOR SITE ENGINEERS While on site, a site engineer must ensure that the brickwork is going on as per quality requirements. Some of the general requirements of quality of brickwork are mentioned below. Use this as a checklist while executing brickwork. The thickness of joint in brick masonry should not exceed 1 […]
Compounds of Cement About 90-95% of a Portland cement is comprised of the four main cement minerals, which are C3S, C2S, C3A, and C4AF, with the remainder consisting of calcium sulphate, alkali sulphates, unreacted (free) CaO, MgO, and other minor constituents left over from the clinkering and grinding steps. The four cement minerals play very different […]
REQUIREMENTS OF FORMWORK – QUALITY, SAFETY & ECONOMY In the selection of materials for formwork, the three general principles of quality, safety and economy must be paramount. Material quality can ensure safety, and significantly contributes to the achievement of economy. Formwork failure can result in loss of life and always causes catastrophic financial loss. Some […]